3- The Eyes, Nose and Ears.
The rough anatomy of dinosaur eyes is fairly similar as the rough anatomy of birds; including the optic disks that the eyes are attached to- that aside, its a feature that birds largely evolved from dinosaurs anyway; making it a safe bet to err to the shape of bird's eyes (I used Eagles and various other birds as part of the inspiration, but mainly just looked at anatomy charts to know the absolute parameters I should stick to). Curiously, T-Rex had another unique physical adaptation; rather than achieving binocular vision by its skull simply being wider towards the back, the lateral flanks around the cheeks actually protrude outwards, each eye sitting snuggly on top (this gives it a slightly wider field of binocular vision than other theropods).
The ears of all dinosaurs are simply sockets that rest directly behind the skull (lower section) and before the muscles that make the lower jaw open.
The nose is, well, obviously where it's supposed to be. I thickened some soft-tissue at the tip (a feature all dinosaurs with non-beaked noses seemed to have). Unsurprisingly, T-Rex had an acute sense of smell.
4- The Legs and Tail
The biggest flaw in my previous design, now fixed nicely. When someone tells you "The tail directly attaches to the legs", THEY MEAN IT.
Unlike mammals, whose thigh muscles and tail muscles more-or-less attach via the pelvis only, every dinosaur has a long pair of muscles that run along the upper half of the thighs, and straight along the sides of the tail for some distance from the base, bypassing the hips entirely. This means there is a muscle directly joining tail and thigh, that pull on each other (lifting the leg makes the tail wag, and vise-versa). Because of this, dinosaurs were able to move more swiftly (and run faster) than previously believed; an extreme case being Carnotaurus, whose tail bones were evolved to accommodate a massive version of this muscle.
Compared to this, T-Rex's muscle was more "Typical", but still rather large (the tradeoff being it could turn tighter corners than Carnotaurus). It also likely had the thickest thighs, indicating it made very heavy use of them (that again, is nothing due to its size, as Giganotosaurus had slimmer legs).
5- Arms and Posture.
A common mistake among artists (but not me, hehe!) is in depicting the arms.
Firstly, the correct posture is they were NOT held like a kangaroo's arms or a dog "begging"; but more like a gunslinger, palms facing each other. This is because T-Rex arm bones were, like almost every other dinosaur, unable to rotate their wrists and point their hands downward. Similarly, T-Rex was unable to fold its arms like a bird folds its wings.
Secondly, and more strangely, is to depict arms according to the belief that they were weak, brittle "de-evolving" limbs that were becoming more and more useless as to allow the animal to have a bigger head.
They were actually the exact opposite. T-Rex's Tyrannosauroid ancestors never had long arms to begin with; even at an early stage, the infamous tiny two-digit limbs already present, which T-Rex merely inherited.
Stranger still, analysis of skeletal flexibility and muscle-scarring indicates T-Rex's arms had evolved to be terrifyingly strong (for their size, which is similar in length to human arms). Each arm was capable of lifting a few hundred kilograms... each. Furthermore, they likely had impressive flexibility, and were well adept for lashing forward and grabbing things (as every other theropod could boast). Source is Carpenter 2002.
6- And finally, the skin!
Bell et al's (2017) findings identified a specimen with multiple remaining skin fragments spread across its entire body- some 30cm wide. Tail, neck, body, lateral, ventral, dorsal... yet found no trace of feathers.
This alone already indicates it had a purely scaly hide (or alternatively, a mottled patchwork of scales and feathers, and by amazing coincidence, the feathers simply didn't fossilize).
But they go a step further and cite recent findings of close relatives; Albertasaurus, Tarbosaurus, Gorgorosaurus and Daspletosaurus (all within the Tyrannosauridae family, the Tarbosaurus and Daspletosaurus specifically sharing the specific Tyrannosaurinae sub-family with T-Rex. Again, skin fragments in different areas (enough to collectively form a near-complete hide), no feathers at all. This means that T-Rex belongs to a family that belongs to a specific family of Tyrannosauroids that show only scales; in contrast, fully-feathered Yutyrannus is a far more distant and ancient relative of a completely different group within the tyrannosauroid super-family. Needless to say, the evolutionary evidence of scales is substantially stronger than the alternative that it somehow retained feathers while its very nearest relatives and ancestors did not.
This study aside, I should point out that fully-scaled dinosaur mummies of hadrosaurs that lived in the same time and place as T-Rex have been unearthed- also fully scaled; suggesting a climate in which even animals half T-Rex's size had evolved to be scaly in (countering any thermoregulatory basis to be covered in thick down).
7- T-Rex was extremely common and widespread across North America during the Late Cretaceous Period.
Fossils of this creature are in great abundance, which aside from reflecting on its success, also make this animal WAY easier to reconstruct.
(If anyone is wondering, this is a major reason I keep illustrating this animal- long story short, we KNOW what its entire skeleton looks like, and can infer its shape very easily. Giganotosaurus is known only from only half a skeleton, and Spinosaurus a couple or ribs, vertebrae, mandibles and recently, a fine pair of legs- meaning there is a lot we don't know about the latter animals)
Bell et al (2017)'s Study into scales;
"Your Dinosaurs are Wrong" for a fun and brilliant rundown on dinosaur anatomy
Scott Hartman's T-Rex vs Giganotosaurus weight calculations (also check out the rest of his work, it's brilliant!)
DePalma et al (2013) Evidence of predatory behaviour AND how powerful T-Rex's bite could be
Carpenter (2002); For Theropod limb mechanics
1) Can I use your artworks?
My answer is usually... Yes! Just ask me first.
Non-profit use I often allow for free- for anything else..
2- Do you take commissions or sell publishing rights to existing images?
YES. ALL of them! And I can alter them to suit your needs very easily. Notable past clients I have done this with include Penguin (Dorling Kingsley), Deisterweg, Ken Derby and Stuart Leigh!
3- How do you work?
In Photoshop (using separate layers). I simply draw the sketch, colour in beneath it, and draw on any other layers (shading, patterns, texture). I save jpgs AND The original layered Photoshop file, so I can make changes wherever necessary.
4) I noticed an error on your works- mind if I chime in?
YES! You are most welcome! I have had some excellent feedback about horizontal Titanosaur posture, and corrected Russian translations in the past, among many other excellent suggestions that have been a huge benefit and actually applied in my works. Please be sure to read my (sometimes lengthy) descriptions as I may touch on these.
5) Are you a Furry? Goth? Metalhead?
Nope (long story about the creepy ears). Sorta. Hell yes.