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Katanga Lion and Lioness Size by Harry-the-Fox Katanga Lion and Lioness Size :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 4 1 Tyrannosaurus Rex Scale- UPDATE by Harry-the-Fox Tyrannosaurus Rex Scale- UPDATE :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 17 62 Jaguar Size by Harry-the-Fox Jaguar Size :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 14 4 Smilodon size comparison by Harry-the-Fox Smilodon size comparison :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 19 3 Ghast Render- first draft by Harry-the-Fox Ghast Render- first draft :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 7 0 Smilodon POPULATOR size comparison. by Harry-the-Fox Smilodon POPULATOR size comparison. :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 16 9 Steppe Mammoth Size Comparison by Harry-the-Fox Steppe Mammoth Size Comparison :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 20 17 Deinotherium Thraceiensis size comparisson by Harry-the-Fox Deinotherium Thraceiensis size comparisson :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 15 20 Paraceratherium- Enhanced Size Comparison by Harry-the-Fox Paraceratherium- Enhanced Size Comparison :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 20 16 RedMarch Portrait- Work in Progress by Harry-the-Fox RedMarch Portrait- Work in Progress :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 3 0 African Bush Elephant by Harry-the-Fox African Bush Elephant :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 17 53 RM Sputnik 2 by Harry-the-Fox RM Sputnik 2 :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 11 0 Smilodon Fatalis Size by Harry-the-Fox Smilodon Fatalis Size :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 23 5 Tyrannosaurus Rex Scale- HYPER Enhanced by Harry-the-Fox Tyrannosaurus Rex Scale- HYPER Enhanced :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 18 21 RM Sputnik by Harry-the-Fox RM Sputnik :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 14 6 Pact Guards 2 refined by Harry-the-Fox Pact Guards 2 refined :iconharry-the-fox:Harry-the-Fox 36 3

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Records de los dinosaurios teropodos - cubierta by Asier-Larramendi Records de los dinosaurios teropodos - cubierta :iconasier-larramendi:Asier-Larramendi 57 8 The super giant African elephant by Asier-Larramendi The super giant African elephant :iconasier-larramendi:Asier-Larramendi 28 13 Fort Gustav by sylergcs Fort Gustav :iconsylergcs:sylergcs 5 0 The famous circus elephant: Jumbo by Asier-Larramendi The famous circus elephant: Jumbo :iconasier-larramendi:Asier-Larramendi 15 11 The king T. rex by Asier-Larramendi The king T. rex :iconasier-larramendi:Asier-Larramendi 43 44 The colossal Narmada valley elephants by Asier-Larramendi The colossal Narmada valley elephants :iconasier-larramendi:Asier-Larramendi 33 25 Abelisaurids by PaleoGuy Abelisaurids :iconpaleoguy:PaleoGuy 197 0 Alien Creature by KENBARTHELMEY Alien Creature :iconkenbarthelmey:KENBARTHELMEY 3,349 269 Male Tyrannosaurus by damir-g-martin Male Tyrannosaurus :icondamir-g-martin:damir-g-martin 1,470 198 Mod Rifle by MeckanicalMind Mod Rifle :iconmeckanicalmind:MeckanicalMind 658 22 Red Cross Dual Special by MeckanicalMind Red Cross Dual Special :iconmeckanicalmind:MeckanicalMind 1,199 79 Subplasma gun by KaranaK Subplasma gun :iconkaranak:KaranaK 1,255 30 Arctotherium Angustidens by SameerPrehistorica Arctotherium Angustidens :iconsameerprehistorica:SameerPrehistorica 79 78 Smilodon species by SameerPrehistorica Smilodon species :iconsameerprehistorica:SameerPrehistorica 84 15 Jinx the Loose Cannon by katiedesousa Jinx the Loose Cannon :iconkatiedesousa:katiedesousa 4,965 178 ugly beauty by MartinAmm ugly beauty :iconmartinamm:MartinAmm 10,376 1,210

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Katanga Lion and Lioness Size
I thought I'd improve upon the previous Southwest African Lion by expanding it to include the girls!

I find lionesses fascinating, and not just because if how they scale up.
As far as dimorphism among felines (and arguably carnivora overall), they are clearly on the extreme end. Aside from the obvious difference of manes (the basis of some interesting research in itself), lionesses are smaller and have a slightly different physique; this in turn gives it a different swathe of advantages (tires far less easily than males) and disadvantages (physically weaker than males; though still ridiculously strong for an animal of her size). As a result, lionesses tend to be better at stalking and subduing smaller, faster prey animals and males (who actually are capable of hunting) will often opt for the big, heavy animals where extra weight and strength come in handy. That said, these preferences aren't exactly truly separate niches; both tend to like the same broad range of prey options- merely either sex will bias more to one end of the spectrum than the other. And of course, sometimes a group of males and females will simply work together. I've seen footage of lionesses bowling down adult buffalo (note, by "bowling down" I mean "run at it and knock it sideways by sheer force"), and lions have been known to attack and kill elephants.

Next, onto size;
The human is, as always, 1.8m tall (exactly 6 feet).
I should point out that the smaller male is the size people typically use when comparing an "African Lion" to other animals. This is arguably a fair average size; but it's definitely not unusual for lions around this area to exceed it. And no, this is NOT an extinct lion subspecies; they're a living, modern species that lives all around the southwestern part of Africa.
The sizes on the "right" side of the page are the typical larger sizes. I can say for certain this is not unusual- in fact, their eastern neighbours- the Transvaal lions (or "Kruger Lions") grow slightly taller and longer than this. The faded gigantic male was from the Guiness Book of World Records (cited via wikipedia), so if you're a little skeptical, fair enough.
You might remember the proportions of the third-largest feline living; the Pantanal Jaguar. A typical "very large" male reaches a length and shoulder height that is much less than the smaller lioness on this image; even when you consider lions have longer limbs for their size than most other panthers- it remains simply that lions are much bigger felines. You might recall the other jaguar reaching a more terrifying size; very close to the smaller male lion you can see here. Compared to tigers or prehistoric cats... I'd say it'd be a very close call, at least. A glance at the length and proportions puts it very close to the competition (and in some ways, ahead), though on the flipside, lions tend to be a lot leaner than these other great felines. What I find interesting is how all of these animals seem to grow to a size that reaches the same upper weight limits (roughly 400kg- either long and lean, or short and stocky).

But that will be a chart for another time. :P
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Tyrannosaurus Rex Scale- UPDATE
It's finally here! (UPDATE- including sources at the bottom- if you have any questions, please check these out first)!

After brushing up on my dinosaur anatomy knowledge, and with new discoveries about near relative's skin surfaces, I became increasingly tempted to correct my previous image (now in the scrapbook).
About a week ago I asked myself "I wonder if they've made any new discoveries about that?" so I hit google and found a news article published a mere few hours ago! It cited a study that provided practically iron-clad evidence that Tyrannosaurus was a purely squamous animal (see below for description, and sources). After reading the original scientific report and scrutinizing it just to be sure I wouldn't be wasting my time, I got to work.

Keep reading for a list of interesting facts that drove the manner I depicted this creature!

1- Size and Shape.
As I stated in the description, T-Rex was probably the heaviest theropod to have existed. Scott Hartman did some estimates and calculations comparing the weight of T-Rex to the second-most-robust non-Tyrannosauroid theropod, Giganotosaurus, and found the T-Rex would have likely been the heavier dinosaur. Despite being about the size of a large elephant, it probably weighed less, thanks to its hollow bones (a major reason why dinosaurs could so easily grow to large sizes). This T-Rex is scaled fairly close to the largest size (about 12m long, with a 1.5m head). Compared to this is a 1.8m (6 foot) man.

2- The Jaws.
We know "It had the most powerful bite of any land animal"... but that doesn't capture how intensely powerful its bite was.
The jaws are extremely thick, and the teeth are shaped not like shears or shark's teeth like other theropods, but bananas with sharped edges- being adapt for bone.
Various models and estimates place the bite-force at between 3600kg to over 5000kg- enough to break, or even shatter bones (as some scale-models demonstrated). Fossil evidence cited by DePalma et al (2013) demonstrates a T-Rex tooth crown embedded in a hadrosaurus bone.... that actually started to heal (meaning the T-rex attacked it, but the hadrosaur got away and started healing). This offers simultaneous proof of predatory behaviour, as well as how easily it can puncture the bones of other large animals.

3- The Eyes, Nose and Ears.
The rough anatomy of dinosaur eyes is fairly similar as the rough anatomy of birds; including the optic disks that the eyes are attached to- that aside, its a feature that birds largely evolved from dinosaurs anyway; making it a safe bet to err to the shape of bird's eyes (I used Eagles and various other birds as part of the inspiration, but mainly just looked at anatomy charts to know the absolute parameters I should stick to). Curiously, T-Rex had another unique physical adaptation; rather than achieving binocular vision by its skull simply being wider towards the back, the lateral flanks around the cheeks actually protrude outwards, each eye sitting snuggly on top (this gives it a slightly wider field of binocular vision than other theropods).
The ears of all dinosaurs are simply sockets that rest directly behind the skull (lower section) and before the muscles that make the lower jaw open.
The nose is, well, obviously where it's supposed to be. I thickened some soft-tissue at the tip (a feature all dinosaurs with non-beaked noses seemed to have). Unsurprisingly, T-Rex had an acute sense of smell.

4- The Legs and Tail
The biggest flaw in my previous design, now fixed nicely. When someone tells you "The tail directly attaches to the legs", THEY MEAN IT.
Unlike mammals, whose thigh muscles and tail muscles more-or-less attach via the pelvis only, every dinosaur has a long pair of muscles that run along the upper half of the thighs, and straight along the sides of the tail for some distance from the base, bypassing the hips entirely. This means there is a muscle directly joining tail and thigh, that pull on each other (lifting the leg makes the tail wag, and vise-versa). Because of this, dinosaurs were able to move more swiftly (and run faster) than previously believed; an extreme case being Carnotaurus, whose tail bones were evolved to accommodate a massive version of this muscle.
Compared to this, T-Rex's muscle was more "Typical", but still rather large (the tradeoff being it could turn tighter corners than Carnotaurus). It also likely had the thickest thighs, indicating it made very heavy use of them (that again, is nothing due to its size, as Giganotosaurus had slimmer legs).

5- Arms and Posture.
A common mistake among artists (but not me, hehe!) is in depicting the arms.
Firstly, the correct posture is they were NOT held like a kangaroo's arms or a dog "begging"; but more like a gunslinger, palms facing each other. This is because T-Rex arm bones were, like almost every other dinosaur, unable to rotate their wrists and point their hands downward. Similarly, T-Rex was unable to fold its arms like a bird folds its wings.
Secondly, and more strangely, is to depict arms according to the belief that they were weak, brittle "de-evolving" limbs that were becoming more and more useless as to allow the animal to have a bigger head.
They were actually the exact opposite. T-Rex's Tyrannosauroid ancestors never had long arms to begin with; even at an early stage, the infamous tiny two-digit limbs already present, which T-Rex merely inherited.
Stranger still, analysis of skeletal flexibility and muscle-scarring indicates T-Rex's arms had evolved to be terrifyingly strong (for their size, which is similar in length to human arms). Each arm was capable of lifting a few hundred kilograms... each. Furthermore, they likely had impressive flexibility, and were well adept for lashing forward and grabbing things (as every other theropod could boast). Source is Carpenter 2002.

6- And finally, the skin!
Bell et al's (2017) findings identified a specimen with multiple remaining skin fragments spread across its entire body- some 30cm wide. Tail, neck, body, lateral, ventral, dorsal... yet found no trace of feathers.
This alone already indicates it had a purely scaly hide (or alternatively, a mottled patchwork of scales and feathers, and by amazing coincidence, the feathers simply didn't fossilize).
But they go a step further and cite recent findings of close relatives; Albertasaurus, Tarbosaurus, Gorgorosaurus and
Daspletosaurus (all within the Tyrannosauridae family, the Tarbosaurus and Daspletosaurus specifically sharing the specific Tyrannosaurinae sub-family with T-Rex. Again, skin fragments in different areas (enough to collectively form a near-complete hide), no feathers at all. This means that T-Rex belongs to a family that belongs to a specific family of Tyrannosauroids that show only scales; in contrast, fully-feathered Yutyrannus is a far more distant and ancient relative of a completely different group within the tyrannosauroid super-family. Needless to say, the evolutionary evidence of scales is substantially stronger than the alternative that it somehow retained feathers while its very nearest relatives and ancestors did not.
This study aside, I should point out that fully-scaled dinosaur mummies of hadrosaurs that lived in the same time and place as T-Rex have been unearthed- also fully scaled; suggesting a climate in which even animals half T-Rex's size had evolved to be scaly in (countering any thermoregulatory basis to be covered in thick down).

7- T-Rex was extremely common and widespread across North America during the Late Cretaceous Period.
Fossils of this creature are in great abundance, which aside from reflecting on its success, also make this animal WAY easier to reconstruct.
(If anyone is wondering, this is a major reason I keep illustrating this animal- long story short, we KNOW what its entire skeleton looks like, and can infer its shape very easily. Giganotosaurus is known only from only half a skeleton, and Spinosaurus a couple or ribs, vertebrae, mandibles and recently, a fine pair of legs- meaning there is a lot we don't know about the latter animals)

REFERENCES
Bell et al (2017)'s Study into scales;
rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.or…

"Your Dinosaurs are Wrong" for a fun and brilliant rundown on dinosaur anatomy
www.youtube.com/playlist?list=…

Scott Hartman's T-Rex vs Giganotosaurus weight calculations (also check out the rest of his work, it's brilliant!)
www.skeletaldrawing.com/home/m…

DePalma et al (2013) Evidence of predatory behaviour AND how powerful T-Rex's bite could be
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/artic…

Carpenter (2002); For Theropod limb mechanics
www.thefossilforum.com/applica…

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Oh my!
According to a new study, it appears Tyrannosaurus Rex was in fact, scaly after all!
All I can say to that is.... stay tuned ;)
Jaguar Size
Free again! I’ve wanted to submit this one for a while.

About the artwork.
The images were constructed from scratch (except for my human model and scales), drawing from multiple photographs and a few skeletal diagrams to be safe. The Jaguar you see is a "frankenstein" of at least 4 different photos, with some re-positioned limbs (that's where the skeleton comes handy). Most of the work was morphing and distorting what I made to fit more accurately to a real jaguar's proportions.
The hardest part? Making the spots. I found out to my great horror that I couldn't get away with random spots as Jaguar's rosettes were very clearly ordered- so I did some research to figure out what the rough patterns was, and after a few failed attempts, managed to duplicate it.
Unlike my other works, where my "Biggest" variant of the animal if depicted as slightly faded, I decided to have some fun and try to depict a melanistic jaguar (aka "black panther") instead, which I did by smoothing over a dark layer over the other hues of the fur (but below the black spots). Just to clarify; "Black panthers" are just ordinary jaguars with very dark fur due to a hereditary gene..... that's it really. They're functionally healthy but little different from their more typical kin, and are equally likely to grow as big or small as a normal jaguar.

About the measurements.
(the short story)
The often-cited claim that the maximum shoulder height for jaguars being 75cm is incorrect. Jaguars with greater shoulder heights have been confirmed in scientific studies on jaguars with head-body lengths SHORTER than the maximum reported length of 180cm.
(The long story.)
As I said, I made this jaguar based on a lot of photos and skeletal references to ensure correct form and proportions. Satisfied by the sheer weight of materials that I got the correct size and shape, my next task was to
find out how big jaguars grew. That was when I noticed something was fishy- the so-called maximum length and shoulder heights (180cm and 75cm, respectively) did not match up!
A hypothetical jaguar that would grow to about the same length as my black panther, but the same height as my "typical" jaguar- would need to be built like a sausage-dog. Clearly, one of these measurements being
the maximum had to be false. After a bit of research on google scolar I quickly found out the correct answer; it was the shoulder height. Scognamillo et al. (2003) reported jaguars with shoulder heights of 81cm; yet these specimens only grew to a total length of 177cm (with 61cm tails). But I decided to go one step further! Noticing Seymour (1979) as the source of information for the dimensions, I decided to check it out.
As I suspected, the measurements in question were reported from previous, separate studies as a brief bit of background before launching into his own study. What likely happened was that the people who reported the longest length never bothered to measure shoulder height, forcing Seymour to report the largest scientifically-recorded shoulder height from a completely different specimen (the largest shoulder height recorded at the time). This tends to happen a lot in scientific reports, so I consider my efforts to double-check well worthwhile!
The moral to this story kids, is to beware the perils of basing a reconstruction off someone's measurements, and always err to the visual material (photos and bones) instead!

I decided not to upscale the bigger jaguar to 180cm simply because the difference from 177cm is so minuscule that you honestly wouldn't even notice.
THAT aside, I think it's quite fascinating that jaguars are able to grow this size at all; the "smaller" size is still larger and heavier than a leopard (itself a VERY big and powerful cat); while the larger size is roughly how big some smaller adult lions and tigers grow! (though nowhere near that of the biggest adults- see my lion chart!) Furthermore, these proportions seem to rival the gracile prehistoric jaguar species!

Hope you like it!
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Smilodon size comparison
A size comparison between Smilodon Fatalis and Populator, in case anyone wanted a direct comparison..

Not much has changed, mainly improving the face of the S. Fatalis image by referring to further skeletal references.
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Hey all.

I just wanted to first apologize for the lack of content for video game art (I've been doing a lot, but most of it is top-secret), and other art, due to being strapped for time with Statistics homework.

Secondly, you may notice I'm starting to accumulate a lot of size-comparison charts of various animals that you might like to see compared against each OTHER.
That's exactly what I'm doing.

My plan:

Comparison of proboscideans ("elephant broader family"):
--African (average)
--African (maximum)
--Deinotherium (Thraceiensis)
--Steppe Mammoth
--Palaeloxodon Namadicus
-Possibly also including others Deinotheriums, mammoths and Asiatic Elephants and such
....and accumulating a few "rhino" species to compare them to (Paraceratherium, Elasmotherium, White rhinoceros)


And of course, I plan to do something similar for large felines (alive and extinct), various predatory dinosaurs, large ornithopod dinosaurs, sauropods... large marine creatures....

..AANNDDDDD........

.....a massively updated version on my old Megafauna size comparison chart!
  • Listening to: DEATH METAL and chillout
  • Reading: Stats homework
  • Watching: Stats homework
  • Playing: Stats homework
  • Eating: Stats homework
  • Drinking: various teas... while doing stats homework

deviantID

Harry-the-Fox
Harry Wilson
Artist | Professional | Digital Art
Australia
FAQ

1) Can I use your artworks?
My answer is usually... Yes! Just ask me first.
Non-profit use I often allow for free- for anything else..

2- Do you take commissions or sell publishing rights to existing images?
YES. ALL of them! And I can alter them to suit your needs very easily. Notable past clients I have done this with include Penguin (Dorling Kingsley), Deisterweg, Ken Derby and Stuart Leigh!

3- How do you work?
In Photoshop (using separate layers). I simply draw the sketch, colour in beneath it, and draw on any other layers (shading, patterns, texture). I save jpgs AND The original layered Photoshop file, so I can make changes wherever necessary.

4) I noticed an error on your works- mind if I chime in?
YES! You are most welcome! I have had some excellent feedback about horizontal Titanosaur posture, and corrected Russian translations in the past, among many other excellent suggestions that have been a huge benefit and actually applied in my works. Please be sure to read my (sometimes lengthy) descriptions as I may touch on these.

5) Are you a Furry? Goth? Metalhead?
Nope (long story about the creepy ears). Sorta. Hell yes.
Interests

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:icondeviantartistmax:
DeviantArtistMax Featured By Owner Apr 24, 2017  Hobbyist General Artist
Happy birthday! 
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:iconharry-the-fox:
Harry-the-Fox Featured By Owner Jun 12, 2017  Professional Digital Artist
Cheers mate (a belated thankyou!)
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:icondeviantartistmax:
DeviantArtistMax Featured By Owner Jun 17, 2017  Hobbyist General Artist
Heh, well a belated welcome it is!
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:iconharry-the-fox:
Harry-the-Fox Featured By Owner Jun 18, 2017  Professional Digital Artist
:D
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:iconmajestic-colossus:
Majestic-Colossus Featured By Owner Apr 24, 2017
Happy birthday! :happybounce:  I miss your art!
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:iconharry-the-fox:
Harry-the-Fox Featured By Owner Jun 12, 2017  Professional Digital Artist
Thanks man- I'll be getting back into that soon, actually
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:iconmajestic-colossus:
Majestic-Colossus Featured By Owner Jun 12, 2017
Great! 
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:icongrisador:
grisador Featured By Owner Apr 24, 2017
Happy Birthday  Harry-the-Fox ! I hope you'll have an awesome year ! :nod:
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:iconharry-the-fox:
Harry-the-Fox Featured By Owner Jun 12, 2017  Professional Digital Artist
Thanks man, same to you!
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:iconterring:
Terring Featured By Owner Apr 24, 2017
Happy birthday :D
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